AIOU Solved Assignments

Course: Introduction to Inclusive Education (6413)
Semester: Autumn 2019
Level: ADE/B. Ed

ASSIGNMENT No. 2

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Q. 1 i)   Explain the role of teachers in inclusion?

Answer:

In an inclusion classroom, students with disabilities and other special needs are taught alongside non-disabled students, instead of being segregated in a special education classroom. To help meet students’ needs, a special education teacher may work alongside a general education teacher in an inclusion classroom. The role of a special education teacher in such a arrangement varies according to the needs of individual students and how well the two teachers work together. Lesson Planning

In an ideal inclusion classroom, the special education teacher and regular education teacher engage in co-planning. They work together to design lesson plans to fit the needs of all students, with the special education teacher focusing on the needs of the special needs students. In some cases, however, the general education teacher plans the classroom lessons and the special education teacher adapts those lessons to meet the needs of her students. She may also use the lessons to develop review materials or plan one-on-one instruction with special needs students before or after the class.

Specialized Instruction

The amount of actual instruction a special education teacher gives in an inclusion classroom varies. In some inclusion classrooms, the two teachers take turns presenting lessons. This may be done on a daily basis, with each teacher taking a portion of the lesson, or the special education teacher may teach the class one or two days a week. When not teaching the entire class, the special education teacher may sit beside students and provide one-on-one help or additional instruction. To help students feel more included as a part of the class, the special education teacher may not be in the inclusion classroom every day, unless a student’s needs require it.

Classroom Management

Even though the focus of a special education teacher’s job is the special needs students in the class, he is also responsible for helping the general education teacher manage the classroom. Other students must listen to and respect the authority of the special education teacher. He also helps set the classroom rules and routines, working with the teacher to create a classroom climate that benefits students with special needs. It is also a special education teacher’s job to be aware of individual students’ behavior plans and provide discipline accordingly.

Other Responsibilities

Special education teachers often have responsibilities that other teachers do not. These teachers must regularly review and develop Individualized Education Plans — or IEPs — and hold meetings to discuss these plans with parents, administrators, counselors and other individuals involved in the education of a child with special needs. They must regularly administer skills tests and other assessments to determine the progress of special needs students or to determine whether students who are not currently enrolled in a special education program need their services. It’s the special education teacher’s job to make sure that laws such as the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act are precisely followed and correct any possible violations.

Mastropieri & Scruggs, (2010), teachers play a pivotal role in mainstreaming inclusive education. The literature on inclusive education is undisputed about no matter how excellent the educational infrastructure might be, how well articulated educational policy might be, how well resourced a program might be, effective inclusion does not take place until regular classroom teachers deliver relevant and meaningful instruction to students with disabilities.

The teacher has to provide high quality, holistic support and focused involvement with the children with special needs based on a joint perspective, mutual understanding and networking. Teachers with the support of the principal of school, colleagues, special educators and parents should develop effective ways of overcoming barriers to learning and supporting effective teaching through observing the quality of teaching and standards of pupils’ achievement and by setting targets for enhancement. Teacher works as a catalyst between the principal of the school and children with special needs and their parents. It is the teacher who sees new and innovative ways in order to fulfill the educational, social and emotional need of child with special needs. Whatever may be the type of resource room the teacher with her commitment, skill and knowledge can redesign it into useful, creative and interesting. One of the main roles is to support the teacher in meeting the needs of children with special needs.

Willms et al, (2002) what appears clearly from the research is that inclusive education results from the leadership of teachers in the classroom. Child development research also confirms the centrality of the teacher’s role and of environments that are rich with opportunities to learn .Sincere and responsive teachers who are dedicated to the inclusion of learners in stimulating learning environments are key to securing not only access to the classroom, but a quality of education that results in positive progressive outcomes. When teachers possess knowledge, classroom supports, leadership and support from their school administrators and the broader education system, an inclusive approach to quality education for all learners can take root in regular classrooms and schools.

The key responsibilities of a teacher for inclusive education are as follows:

Overseeing the day to day operation of the scheme IEDSS in particular and inclusive education in general. Coordinating the provision of support services for children with special needs Regular liasioning and seeking advice from fellow special educators in regard to the education of child with special needs Liasioning with other special educators’ of other schools for updating the information and knowledge.

Keep constant liasioning with different Non-Government organisation working in this field for aiding support services for child with special needs

Maintain the database of child with special needs Develop the assessment portfolio of child with special needs Prepare a list of required materials and equipment before the beginning of the session Organize continuous, periodic and regular parent meeting

Ensuring that a child with special needs joins in the activities of the school together with other pupils.

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Q.1 ii)             How does “team approach strategy work? Give suitable examples to support your answer?

Answer:

A good place to start is ensuring that your strategic planning meetings are productive — this is a simple way of keeping your process on track and keeping your team members engaged. No one wants to waste their time in pointless meetings, least of all you, the business owner.

  1. The first key to running successful planning meetings — team buy-in. You need the full
    attention and support of everyone involved. The time budgeted for strategic planning must be understood to be top priority by everyone participating. It is essential to make sure your team understands the purpose of strategic planning — to design a strategy to ensure future success —and the significant role they play in shaping the plan.
  2. The second key is realizing that no strategic plan gets completed in one sitting. You will
    need to plan several meetings so that you can reflect on the plan and adjust as necessary. This means each meeting topic should be short and simple. The most common mistake that results in meetings running off the rails is setting too broad an agenda or cramming too many topics into a single meeting. Several short, concise, focused planning meetings are much better than an all-day marathon.
  3. The third key is the agenda. Every planning meeting needs one. It should be circulated
    prior to the meeting along with any reports or other materials that need to be reviewed in preparation. It should include all items to be discussed with time allocated for each. The agenda should also include a goal or statement of purpose for the meeting, highlighting how the meeting fits into the strategic planning process. This way those attending know what the outcome needs to be.
  4. Finally, you need to ensure that your planning meeting runs as planned. The following
    three roles are vital for keeping things on track.

If building your own strategic plan, our video walkthrough will guide you: I WANT TO CREATE THE PLAN AGAIN

Chair — This is probably you, although it doesn’t need to be. This person is responsible for leading the meeting and keeping the group focused on the agenda items. The meeting chair needs to ensure all the voices around the table are heard, should curtail distracting discussion and overrule counter-productive arguments. The chair will decided if there is a need to end discussion on items or push them off to another meeting.

Time Keeper — Not only should every meeting begin on time, it should end on time also. The time keeper is responsible for keeping the meeting running on time and will notify the Chair if items exceed allotted time.

Scribe — The scribe takes the meeting minutes and, pending the chair’s review, circulate these to all meeting participants. The minutes should include detailed action items, including who is responsible and the delivery date.

One of the most common reasons strategic planning gets derailed is unproductive, unfocused planning meetings. Ensuring the team has a stake in the process, is committed to short-focused meetings with a clear agenda and with clearly defined roles will help your company’s strategic planning process be successful.

4 Keys to Successful Team Planning

  1. Buy-in of all team members to the planning process and alignment of expectations of the outcome.
  2. Plan the necessary time and keep each planning meeting short and concise.
  3. Have a detailed agenda, with a clear goal.
  4. Assign key roles to keep each meeting on track: chair, time keeper, scribe.

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6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Q.2 What are the standards and criteria required to create an inclusive school? Why professional development of teachers is necessary? Discuss

Answer:

What does an inclusive school look and sound like? The following scenario describes a typical day in freshman language arts class for 32 students attending an ordinary, yet extraordinary, high school in a large urban school district.

The students in Mr. Rice’s third period have just finished “reading” the final chapter of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (1960). Some students have listened to the book on tape because of their literacy levels, while other students were given (or created for themselves) graphic organizers to help them organize key ideas. The students have been working on 9th grade California literacy standards while reading the book. Although these students are diverse in their learning styles and abilities, all are challenged in meaningful ways that relate to the 9th grade standards. Mr. Rice has just assigned a culminating task that asks the students to creatively depict how the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird demonstrated courage and conviction. He also has distributed a rubric describing how the assignments will be evaluated.

Several students in Mr. Rice’s class qualify for special education; five qualify for gifted and talented services. In collaboration with Mr. Rice, the coordinator of the gifted and talented support services, Ms. Stremel, has contracted with each of those five students about how they will not only meet but also exceed the assignment rubric. Mr. Rice and Ms. Stremel are available at any time to assist and guide the five students as they complete their modified assignments and to help other students with their assignments. Ms. Mikel, Mr. Rice’s special education support teacher, is also in the classroom and is available to help students eligible for special education and anyone else who seeks assistance.

Jesils, one of Mr. Rice’s third period students, qualifies for special education services because of a learning disability. He reads well below grade level but has excellent verbal and visual/spatial skills. For the assignment, Jesus is partnered with Emily, who has high reading and writing skills but struggles with verbal skills. The two students use their complementary strengths to put together a joint presentation on how the To Kill a Mockingbird characters demonstrated courage and conviction.

George, a student with autism, and Quon receive guidance in designing their presentation. George will show pictures of the characters with brief written descriptions that he and Quon have composed. Lonny, a socially talented senior, is completing his community service requirements by supporting George and the other students in this third period class.

Casandra, who has multiple disabilities, uses an electric wheel-chair to get around and an electronic communication aid to convey her thoughts and responses. Casandra’s partner is Jimmy, a classmate who qualifies for gifted and talented services. Jimmy surfs the Web for information related to the topic and then decides with Casandra what to include in their presentation. Casandra and Jimmy enter their content into Casandra’s electronic communication device, which has a voice output that will be activated to deliver their presentation in class.

Two students are English-language learners. One student speaks Cantonese, and the other speaks Spanish. Each is partnered with a bilingual classmate. The two pairs of students prepare bilingual presentations in their languages: one pair in Cantonese and English and the other pair in Spanish and English. All visual aids are also presented in both languages. The composition of Mr. Rice’s class reflects the diversity in most classrooms in the United States. At one time, many students in such a class would have been labeled and forced into separate classes, thereby limiting their exposure to one another, the essential curriculum, and varied instructional procedures and personnel. Some students would have been moved to a gifted and talented program. Jesus, Casandra, and George would have been classified as disabled and placed in a segregated special education program. The students speaking languages other than English would have been placed in a separate bilingual or English-as­a-second-language program, where they would have limited exposure to English-speaking peers.

Some people argue that the social justice occurring in Mr. Rice’s class—inclusive education—is not the responsibility of schools. However, if inclusive education is not the schools’ responsibility, then whose is it? Our country’s systems and institutions teach by example what a country, state, or community values: either inclusion, or segregation and exclusion. Inclusive education demands that schools create and provide whatever is necessary to ensure that all students have access to meaningful learning. It does not require students to possess any particular set of skills or abilities as a prerequisite to belonging.

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Q. 3 i)         Differentiate between inclusive and special education curriculum?

Answer:

Are you familiar with the difference between integration and inclusion when it comes to the classroom environment? The trend in education today is moving away from integration and toward inclusion. While both approaches aim to bring students with disabilities into the mainstream classroom, one system expects students to adapt to the pre-existing structure, while the other ensures the existing education system will adapt to each student.

An integrated classroom is a setting where students with disabilities learn alongside peers without disabilities. Extra supports may be implemented to help them adapt to the regular curriculum, and sometimes separate special education programs are in place within the classroom or through pull-out services. In theory, integration is a positive approach that seeks to help students with disabilities be part of the larger group. In practicality, the differences in the way all people learn can make this system of education less effective overall.

Inclusion is the actual merging of special education and regular education with the belief that all children are different, will learn differently, and should have full access to the same

curriculum. Students with disabilities are not expected to adjust to a fixed education structure. Rather the structure is adjusted so that everyone’s learning styles can be met. Barriers to learning are removed to allow each student to participate fully in the curriculum and feel equally valued. The end result is that all students with and without disabilities benefit.

Following guidelines for accessibility makes an inclusive classroom possible. Bridgeway Education can support you in your transition to an accessible curriculum. Contact us for a free accessibility evaluation of a sample of your content, or sign up for The Accessibility Imperative professional development course to learn about creating accessible learning experiences for all students.

Special education and inclusion classrooms run along a continuum. Inclusion (which is also referred to as “general education” or “mainstreaming”) refers to environments where typically developing students are in classes alongside students with Individual Education Plans (IEP’s).

On the other end of the continuum are more restrictive environments, like home and hospital instruction or segregated classes (“special class services”) where there are six to 15 students with one teacher and up to four paraprofessionals.

Inclusion is not only a preference, it’s the law. If a student can succeed in a less restrictive environment (LRE), that is where he must be placed. Students are also not required to be in a single environment for the whole day — sometimes students can be in a more restricted environment for part of the day (e.g. an academic period), but return to a general education group for another part of the day (e.g. physical education).

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Pros and Cons

A number of studies tout the benefits of inclusive education. It is more cost-effective than separate classrooms, but more importantly, positive effects have been noted on the students with IEP’s, particularly in their academics (Weiner, 1985); however, according to a report from Princeton University, the “instructional models employed and the classroom environment appeared to have a greater impact on student academic and social success.”

Positive effects have also been found for the typically developing students, including the following list from the Wisconsin Education Association Council (WEAC):

  • A reduced fear of human differences accompanied by increased comfort and awareness (Peck et al., 1992)
  • Growth in social cognition (Murray-Seegert,1989)
  • Improvement in self-concept of non-disabled students (Peck et. al., 1992)
  • Development of personal principles and ability to assume an advocacy role toward their peers and friends with disabilities
  • Warm and caring friendships (Bogdan and Taylor, 1989)

The key difficulty with inclusion is that it only works if it is enacted appropriately. According to a study at Grand Canyon University, “both general education teachers and special education teachers believed that administrative support, mutual respect, a positive work environment, and open minds towards inclusion, professional development opportunities, and knowledge of students with disabilities are all crucial components needed to successfully implement inclusion.”

Arguments for segregated classrooms fall largely into one of two categories:

  1. Specialized teachers have the time and expertise to instruct students using best
    practices.
  2. Students in separate classrooms can develop a positive identity in relation to their
    learning or neurological difference, and thus can reap academic and social benefits from separate classrooms (e.g. for students who are gifted and talented, students with dyslexia or other specific learning differences, and for post-secondary deaf students.

What works best for your child will depend on your his unique skills and needs, and each school has a different set of resources. Placement decisions must be made with the child’s best interest and learning needs in mind, and sufficient support must be given to teachers and educators to ensure that classrooms differentiate for all learners.

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6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Q. 3 ii)      Which strategies you can adopt to create an inclusive classroom? Also explain the benefits of an inclusive classroom? Answer:

The inaction comes at a harsh price, both to students’ education and to their development as informed, empathetic global citizens. According to The Century Foundation, inclusive classroom settings lead to beneficial academic outcomes and better interpersonal relations for students of all backgrounds. Giving children the opportunity to interact with people of different races and socioeconomic statuses reduces stereotypes and intolerance. The Century Foundation also references data showing integrated schooling closes the achievement gap, and allows more equal access to facilities, resources and highly-trained teachers.

Recent demographic changes point to an increased potential for integrated academic communities, as urban areas gentrify and more families of color move into historically white majority suburbs. But school districts should not rely on ever-evolving neighborhood conditions to ensure racial diversity.

Below, read about 7 ways education leaders can work to create inclusive academic settings that support young students of all races and economic classes.

  1. Academic Support

Inclusive Learning recommends schools provide academic support services to ensure all students have the opportunity to thrive. Flexible pacing, reading specialists and tutoring can be especially helpful to students with learning differences or who speak English as a second language.

  • Prepare Teachers

Highly trained teachers are vital to educating students about privilege and oppression. But according to a piece from Counseling@NYU, which offers an online masters in school counseling from NYU Steinhardt, many teachers do not have enough of an understanding of these topics to properly support students.

“I think that educators — whoever is holding the discussion — have to be competent about privilege, power and oppression and aware of how race impacts the greater society — not just the schools themselves,” says Joseph Feola, a school counselor at Manhattan’s Stuyvesant High School and adjunct professor in the NYU Steinhardt program. “When it

comes to districts providing training for teachers and counselors,” he said. “We’re not doing a great job right now.”

Teachers without training may also use hurtful language, or perform other micro-aggressions like, as Inclusive Schools points out, mispronouncing names of students of color.

For educators to effectively support a community, they need to see themselves as more than conveyors of fact. They need to hold their students to high expectations, prioritize closing the achievement gap, and help their students understand and connect to the world at large.

  • Curriculum

It’s rare for school curriculums to address concepts like privilege, oppression, global power structures and racism. But according to information presented at the Massachusetts Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, this as a key step in combating inequality.

By only formally instructing on academic disciplines like math, schools provide students with a knowledge of facts that doesn’t connect to today’s greater world. This type of education gives no counter to prejudiced beliefs white students may encounter at home, in media, or from the world at large, and no context for students of color to make sense of their own experiences in our current society.

  • Integrate Student Bodies

Many measures have been proposed to integrate student body populations, from voluntary transfer programs to redrawing school neighborhood boundaries. The Century Foundation suggests federal and state incentives for districts that assume these kind of redistricting policies.

  • Adjust Ranking Calculations One way the educational system can address school inequality is by adjusting evaluation measurements to take both diversity of student population and intercultural understanding into account, says The Century Foundation. Schools should be penalized for failing to address these concerns.
  • Create a Respectful School Community

Outside individual classrooms, educators can also make sure they foster an inclusive larger school community. Hire a staff that reflects the diversity of the students and demonstrate on an institutional level a respect for people of all races and economic backgrounds and with all different strengths. Let students know that the staff can serve as a resource to help them navigate issues related to discrimination and oppression.

  • Create A Space for Discussion

Educators can promote inclusivity by creating environments where students can openly discuss thoughts and feelings about privilege and structural oppression.

Benefits of an inclusive classroom:

Inclusive education is about looking at the ways our schools, classrooms, programs and lessons are designed so that all children can participate and learn. Inclusion is also about finding different ways of teaching so that classrooms actively involve all children. It also means finding ways to develop friendships, relationships and mutual respect between all children, and between children and teachers in the school.

Inclusive education is not just for some children. Being included is not something that a child must be ready for. All children are at all times ready to attend regular schools and classrooms. Their participation is not something that must be earned.

Inclusive education is a way of thinking about how to be creative to make our schools a place where all children can participate. Creativity may mean teachers learning to teach in different ways or designing their lessons so that all children can be involved.

As a value, inclusive education reflects the expectation that we want all of our children to be appreciated and accepted throughout life.

Beliefs and Principles

  • All children can learn
  • All children attend age appropriate regular classrooms in their local schools
  • All children receive appropriate educational programs
  • All children receive a curriculum relevant to their needs
  • All children participate in co-curricular and extracurricular activities
  • All children benefit from cooperation, collaboration among home, among school, among community

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6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019


Q. 4 Explain the salient features of universal design for learning. How you can differentiate between Assistive Technology and universal Design for learning? Give examples? Answer:

The goal of UDL is to use a variety of teaching methods to remove any barriers to learning and give all students equal opportunities to succeed. It’s about building in flexibility that can be adjusted for every student’s strengths and needs. That’s why UDL benefits all kids. This approach to teaching doesn’t specifically target kids with learning and thinking differences. But it can be especially helpful for the 1 in 5 kids with these issues—including those who have not been formally diagnosed. It can also be very helpful for English language Even if you’re not familiar with the term universal design, you’ve likely encountered many examples of it in your everyday life. Closed captions, automatic doors and accessibility features on smartphones are all examples of universal design. These design elements help people with disabilities. But people who don’t have disabilities may also want to use them. For example, closed captioning on TVs allows people with hearing impairments to see onscreen text of what is being said. But closed captioning benefits everybody. If you’ve ever tried to watch the news or a game in a noisy restaurant, you probably used the closed captions to follow along.

UDL provides that same kind of flexibility in the classroom. By applying UDL principles, teachers can effectively instruct a diverse group of learners. They do this by building in flexibility in the ways learners can access information and in the ways students can demonstrate their knowledge.

This video from Understood founding partner CAST gives a quick overview of UDL. Three Main Principles of UDL

UDL is a framework for how to develop lesson plans and assessments that is based on three main principles:

  • Representation: UDL recommends offering information in more than one format. For example, textbooks are primarily visual. But providing text, audio, video and hands-on learning gives all kids a chance to access the material in whichever way is best suited to their learning strengths.
  • Action and expression: UDL suggests giving kids more than one way to interact with the material and to show what they’ve learned. For example, students might get to choose between taking a pencil-and-paper test, giving an oral presentation or doing a group project.
  • Engagement: UDL encourages teachers to look for multiple ways to motivate students. Letting kids make choices and giving them assignments that feel relevant to their lives are some examples of how teachers can sustain students’ interest. Other common strategies include making skillbuilding feel like a game and creating opportunities for students to get up and move around the classroom.

Other examples of UDL in the classroom include letting students complete an assignment by making a video or a comic strip. To get a deeper understanding of UDL, it also helps to see how it’s different from a traditional approach to education. Explore this chart that compares UDL and traditional education side by side.

Learning and Thinking Differences and UDL

UDL helps all students. But here are some of the ways it may be especially helpful to kids with learning and thinking differences:

  • Makes learning more accessible in general education classrooms, which is where most kids with learning and thinking differences spend most or all of the school day.
  • Presents information in ways that adapt to the learner, instead of asking the learner to adapt to the information.
  • Gives kids more than one way to interact with material. UDL builds in flexibility that can make it easier for kids to use their strengths to work on their weaknesses.
  • Reduces stigma. By giving a variety of options to all students, UDL doesn’t single out

the few who receive formal accommodations as part of IEPs or 504 plans.

UDL is regarded so highly that it’s mentioned by name in the nation’s main education law. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) encourages states and districts to use federal funding to help teachers expand the use of UDL.

If you’re not sure whether your school uses UDL, ask. If they don’t know about UDL, talk to them about it. As a parent, you can advocate for teacher training that will help make the curriculum more accessible for your child.

How you can differentiate between Assistive Technology and universal Design for learning: Assistive Technology and Universal Design for Learning: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Technology continues to evolve and transform learning and education for students with disabilities. In their article discussing the similarities and differences between AT and UDL, Rose et al., (2005) conclude universal designs benefit disabled and able-bodied persons alike, and that “Assistive technologies make universal designs more effective” (p. 510).

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Assistive Technology: Empowering Students with Learning Disabilities. Some learning
disabilities interfere with reading comprehension because the students have difficulty
decoding words. The review by Forgrave (2002) concluded speech synthesis technology,

when used to read unfamiliar text to students, can dramatically improve students’ reading speed and comprehension. This improvement may motivate students to read independently and therefore improve their reading success.

Implementing Assistive Technologies: A Study on Co-Learning in the Canadian Elementary School Context. A study by White and Robertson (2014) indicates text-to­speech technologies could benefit students by decreasing their dependence on others to read text to them. The authors further indicate if teachers are to routinely use AT in their classrooms, they require training in the use of the AT. As a result of their study the authors found, “All of the students in this study had difficulties with reading, but with assistive technologies which compensated, they were able to work at grade level” (p. 1274). Furthermore, the use of text-to-speech provided students with disabilities the opportunity to read the same books as their peers and to send emails to their friends, resulting in improvements in both motivation to read and reading comprehension.

Supported eText: Effects of Text-to-Speech on Access and Achievement for High School Students with Disabilities. In the absence of individual accommodations, learning disabilities can be a barrier to students accessing the general curriculum. Authors Izzo, Yurick, and McArrell (2009) investigated the use of eText to support high school students and found “learned helplessness is prevalent among special education students” (p. 3), who, when taking quizzes randomly clicked answers knowing they were going to fail the quiz. However, when using text-to-speech AT, all students’ unit quiz scores improved, and most students’ reading comprehension improved.

Universal Design for Learning. Rogers-Shaw et al., (2017) believe that leveraging technology in universal design could lead to greater inclusivity, however, they caution the simple application of technology is insufficient to achieve this greater inclusivity if educators do not adopt the principles of UDL to more effectively meet the needs of all learners.

Universal Design for Learning: Enhancing Achievement and Employment of STEM Students with Disabilities. Advances in computer technology have increased, and now students have multiple means of accessing course content when course design is in keeping with the principles of UDL, and these “universally designed devices can reduce the need for formal accommodations for STEM students with disabilities” (Izzo & Bauer, 2013, p. 19). Izzo and Bauer (2013) indicate “when accessible technology and instruction are provided using UDL principles…many students benefit with increased achievement. Learning through universally designed and accessible technology is essential for students with disabilities who, without access, would not gain the skills needed to complete their degrees” (p. 17).

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6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Q. 5 Briefly explain the components of lesson plan for inclusive education. As a teacher of inclusive classroom develops a lesson plan for English subject who accommodate students with special needs in mainstream classroom?

Answer:

I found three lesson plans for elementary school kindergarten, middle school grade 7-8, and high school grade 9-10. The first lesson plan is “The Four Seasons on Earth” by Kimberlee McElroy on teachnology.com. I found this lesson plan to be useful in accommodating children with learning disabilities (LD). The objective of this lesson plan is “for students to be

able to name all the four seasons and to be able to describe how the weather of the seasons and to also be able to determine what should be wore and what activities are fitting for the different seasons” (McElroy, 2012). This lesson plan was designed for students who have a language impairment and to help them be able to increase their knowledge of vocabulary and their usage related to the four seasons. “Vocabulary is critical to reading success for three reasons: comprehension improves when you know what the words mean, words are the currency of communication and a robust vocabulary improves all areas of communication such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, and when children and adolescents improve their vocabulary, their academic and social confidence and competence improve, too” (Alexander, n.d. ). This lesson plan is made especially for students with LD. It will help to increase a child’s vocabulary and can also be adjusted to meet the needs of each child who has an IEP. It accommodates all types of learners and not just one type of learner.

Some adaptations that could be made to the lesson plan include visual aides for the students such as real pictures of the different seasons. Different clothing items can be brought in to show what appropriate clothing is for that time of year. Also, different foods can be brought in for each of the seasons such as vegetable soup or vegetable beef soup for winter. The students can create a book of their own on each of the seasons and draw pictures or bring in pictures or items for the different seasons. Students can also write a few words that relate to the particular season such as cold, snow, and white. Those can be vocabulary words as well. Graphic organizers can be used to help a students to be able to organize the words for each season. “Graphic organizers may greatly assist students with learning disabilities in connecting new material to prior knowledge, identifying main ideas and supporting details, drawing inferences, and creating effective problem-solving strategies” (Wayne, 2011, para. 10).

The lesson plan that I am using already has accommodations for special needs students such as visual sentence starters and verbal prompts. I believe I could pair students who have a learning disability with a non disabled child and have them work to help each other with their books by giving suggestions and helping to say the vocabulary words. For a child with LD, they may not be able to write a word such as snow very well so I would create a worksheet for them to be able to trace the letters.

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

The second lesson plan is “The Pearl” by John Blackwell on teachnology.com. This is a lesson plan for grades 7-8. The objective for this lesson plan is to “Facilitate understanding of the importance of rules in society, relate decision-making skills to each students own personal experiences, foster an appreciation for reading, and help students develop an understanding for what the author’s point of view and what they are trying to convey” (Blackwell, 2012). This lesson plan is tailored to meet the needs of special education students. This lesson plan was designed to help students in middle school grades to be able to enhance their reading comprehension, read novels, and to learn appropriate decision making skills (Blackwell, 2012). Reading comprehension is important for students to learn in order to be able to understand what is it that they are reading and the words that they are reading. “Without comprehension, reading is simply following words on a page from left to right while sounding them out and the words on the page have no meaning and while people read for many different reasons, the chief goal is to derive some understanding of

what the writer is trying to convey and make use of that information — whether for fact gathering, learning a new skill, or for pleasure” (Marshall, 2014, para. 2).

Some adaptations that could be used are allowing the students to read aloud to the class if they are comfortable enough to do so. Also, the students could get in groups and act out parts of the book that way students can visually see what the story is about. A research-based strategy that can be used is a concept map and it works just like graphic organizers. They can help a child to brainstorm and map out ideas. A concept map can be used before reading begins and students can share what they already know about a concept. Then, when the reading begins, students can add to the map as a group as the story progresses. Students can also draw pictures to help them remember or understand or even use pictures form the internet or cut out to help them (Reading Rockets, 2015).

This lesson plan has accommodations already but some accommodations I could recommend is allowing a students to use a text to speech program to have the book read to them if they have difficulty with reading or communication disorder. For the particular book in the lesson plan, there is an audible version of the book for students to be able to listen to the story and follow along. For a final report, accommodations such as being able to use speak to text software can help a students to be able to write their report if they have a hard time typing or writing. That way the can see what is being typed out instead of having errors throughout their paper. They also can be paired up with a partner that can help them to write their paper and get in it on time.

For the last lesson plan, I chose “My Country” by Donna Lewis on teachnology.com. This lesson plan is for grades 9-10 and the objective of this lesson plan is for students to be able to apply the theories of the government, economics, and also sociology and they will be able to create their own country and do research to gather information. They will design their own government, pick a location, and create their own flag (Lewis, 2014). This lesson plan is designed to accommodate special needs students and they will be working in teams to create their own country and government. It also teaches the students about the government and also how to do research. It helps students to be able to create their own country and to see what it takes to run it. It teaches them to be able to apply concepts to real world situations they will face. Civic education means explicit and continuing study of the basic concepts and values underlying our democratic political community and constitutional order and civic education also involves development of skills in making decisions about public issues and participating in public affairs” (Hoge, 1988, para. 2). Even students with special needs has to be able to understand how government works and how to handle public issues and to make decisions. I see this lesson plan helping a students with LD or CD to be able to use critical thinking, learn concepts to use in the real world, and to also learn how to use public speaking to their advantage. It can help to build up their confidence.

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

Some adaptations that could be made is possibly taking a field trip to a government building such as the state capital to learn and see how the government functions on a daily basis. They can take notes and they can have a classmate help them take notes and help to translate anything a special needs students may not understand. Also, it could be arranged for the students to act out certain types of the government to help them understand how it works and hat they would like to use to develop their country. They could act out the

signing of the declaration of independence and develop ideas on how to create their own. If the students is not comfortable n acting out in front of the class, then the students and team members can do it in front of the teacher only. If they are not comfortable speaking then they can use a text to speech program to speak for them and also if they have trouble with communication. A research-based strategy I really feel that works with this lesson plan is a graphic organizer. “Graphic organizers help students to visually display, interpret, and understand complex topics” (Ketcham, 2010). I feel a graphic organizer can help students with LD and CD and even non disabled students to be able to organize their thoughts and the information they find for their design of their own country.

This lesson plan has some accommodations already for it such as talking software and spelling and writing software to help students who have reading issues and difficulty writing and spelling. A speech to text software such as Dragon can be used to help students write their paper for their final project. Assigning someone from another class to help a student who may be struggling to understand the work or the assignments and reading material. Allowing the students to be assessed verbally daily can help them to be able to say what they have learned rather than type it or write it. Questions can be asked and they can answer verbally.

Some ways I feel that a teacher could leverage learning strategies is by cooperative learning groups which can help students to be able to help one another. Putting non-disabled students who have a firm understanding of the lesson plan can help the students with LD and CD. This goes for all of the grade level lesson plans I chose. Also, setting objectives and providing feedback can help the students to set goals at the beginning of the lesson and to set a time frame to meet those goals. Daily goals can be set by the teacher and the student. “Setting objectives establishes directions for learning and student benefit when they personalize goals set by teachers”(Pennsylvania Department of Education [PDE], 2009). Allowing students to summarize and take notes can help them along in the lesson plan to write down important information needed for an assignment. Some social interaction for all the grade level lesson plans is having the students to introduce themselves at the beginning of the year or the beginning of a new semester or quarter. The students can write down information about themselves or they can be paired up with another students and let them introduce each other to the class. Class discussions can be done in the beginning of class about the lesson plan and also after the lesson. It is a great way to get the students to give their input on the assignment and to interact with one another. Have the students do group presentations. It can help to divide up the workload on big assignments such as the lesson plan for high school and can help students with LD and CD to have less of a burden and to also help to keep their stress level down. Some behavior supports that would work within these lesson plans are making sure the classroom environment is accommodated for students with special needs. An example is a students with ADHD. They should not be seated where there is high traffic or loud areas and away from anything that may distract them from learning. Having a set class schedule or routine can help students to know what is going to happen during that class period. It can help to reduce the anxiety and keep frustrations down. “A classroom schedule that is well-designed and is implemented consistently may be the single most important factor in preventing challenging behaviors” (Ruef, Higgins, Glaeser, & Patnode, n.d., p. 7). Allowing the students to be able to
make choices in their lives and in class can help to reduce behavioral problems. With the students being able to have input in decision making, it will help to build their self confidence and to also have a say in what goes on in their daily lives and routines within reasonable limits. It helps with their productivity and independence. Lastly, reward positive behavior.

6413 AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Autumn 2019

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