Course:   School, Society and Teacher (6412)

Level:     B.Ed. (4-years)

Semester: Autumn, 2019

ASSIGNMENT No.02

6412 aiou solved assignment 2 autumn 2019

Question.01   a) Explain the means of social control in a society?

Answer:

Generally speaking, social control is nothing but control of the society over individuals.in order to maintain the organization and the order of the society, man has to be kept under some sort of control. This control is necessary in order to have desired behavior from the individual and enable him to develop social qualities.

Social control is the term sociologists apply to those mechanisms by which any society maintains a normative social system. It refers to all the ways and means by which society enforces conformity to its norms. The individual internalises social norms and these become part of his personality. In the process of socialization the growing child learns the values of his own groups as well as of the larger society and the ways of doing and thinking that are deemed to be right and proper.

Types of Social Controls:

Different social thinkers have categorized social control in different ways. A few classifications in regard to types and forms of social control are as follows:

(1)Forms of social control as given by Karl Mannheim:

Karl Mannheim, the famous social thinker, has categorized social control under the following two heads:

  1. Direct social control,
  2. Indirect social control.

(a)Direct social control:

That type of social control which directly regulates and controls the behavior of the individual is called Direct Social Control. This type of control is to be found in family, neighborhood, play-groups. In these institutions, parents, neighbors, teachers, classmates etc., keep control over the behavior of the individuals.

(b)Indirect social control:

In this type of social control distant factors keep control over the behavior of the individual. Such a type of control is exercised by secondary groups through customs; traditions, rationalized behavior etc. and public opinion are important forms of indirect social control.

(2)Forms of social control as given by Gurvitch:\

According to Gurvitch social control is of the following four types:

  1. Organized social control
  2. Unorganized social control
  3. Spontaneous social control
  4. More spontaneous social control

(a)Organized social control:

In this type of social control, the behavior of the individual is regulated either through voluntary means or through democratic ways. This is done through natural ways of social control.

(b)Unorganized social control:

This social control is exercised by values of culture and usages, traditions, fashion, symbol, etc. This is an elastic type of social control and is related to day-to-day life.

(c)Spontaneous social control:

This type of social control isexercised by ideas, rules and regulations, values, norms etc.

(d)More spontaneous social control:

Social control that is exercised by direct social and group experience, such as, aspirations, decisions, desires, etc., is called more spontaneous social control.

(3)Forms of social control as given by Kimball Young:

Well-known social thinker Kimball Young has categorized social control under the following two heads.

  1. Positive social control
  2. Negative social control

(a)Positive social control:

In this type of social control positive steps such as reward, the policy of appreciation etc. are used for keeping the person under control. As a result of these steps man tries to behave in the best possible manner in the society.

(b)Negative social control:

This is just reverse of the positive form of social control. In this form of social control individual on the fear of punishment and derecognition by the society is made to behave in conformity with the values of the society.

(4)Hayes’s classification of social control:

He has classified social control under the following two head.

  1. Control by sanction
  2. Control by socialization and education

(a)Control by sanction:

In this kind of social control, those who act according to the values of the society are awarded, while to those who act against the norms of the society are punished.

(b)Control by socialization and education:

Through education and socialization, the child is taught to act according to the norms of the society.

(5)Forms of social control as given by Lumbey:

He well-known social thinker Lumbey has classified social control under the following two categories:

  1. Physical force method
  2. Human symbol method

Under the first form, man is made to behave in a particular manner by application of physical force, but in the second form, he is made to behave in conformity with the values of the society through language, traditions, customs, religion, rituals, etc.

(6)Forms of social control according to Cooley:

According to Cooley there are two forms of social control:

  1. Conscious
  2. Unconscious

Through conscious form or social control, society compels an individual to act according to its accepted objectives. Through unconscious method, social institutions such as religion, customs, traditions, etc. keep control over the behavior of the individual.

General views about forms of social control:

General social control is classified under the following two forms:

  1. Formal social control
  2. Informal social control

(a)Formal social control:

This type of social control is exercised by known and deliberate agencies of social control, such as law, punishment, army, constitution etc. man is forced to accept these forms of social control. Generally, these forms are exercised by secondary groups.

(b)Informal social control:

These agencies of social control have grown according to the needs of the society. Folks way, mores, customs, social norms, etc. fall under this category of social control. Generally primary institutions exercise this type of social control.

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Question no. 01 b) In your opinion which social control agents are influential in our society and why?

Answer:

Socialization helps people learn to function successfully in their social worlds. This learning takes place through interaction with various agents of socialization, like peer groups and families, plus both formal and informal social institutions.

Social Group Agents:

Social groups often provide the first experiences of socialization. Families, and later peer groups, communicate expectations and reinforce norms. People first learn to use the tangible objects of material culture in these settings, as well as being introduced to the beliefs and values of society.

Family:

Family is the first agent of socialization. Mothers and Fathers, siblings and grandparents, plus members of an extended family, all teach a child what he or she needs to know. For example, they show the child how to use objects; how to relate to others; and how the world works. As you are aware, either from your own experience as a child or from your role in helping to raise one, socialization includes teaching and learning about an unending array of objects and ideas.

Keep in mind, however, that families do not socialize children in a vacuum. Many social factors affect the way a family raises its children. For example, we can use sociological imagination to recognize that individual behaviors are affected by the historical period in which they take place. Sixty years ago, it would not have been considered especially strict for a father to hit his son with a wooden spoon or a belt if he misbehaved, but today that same action might be considered child abuse.

Sociologists recognize that race, social class, religion, and other social factors play an important role in socialization. For example, poor families usually emphasize obedience and conformity when raising their children, while wealthy families emphasize judgment and creativity (NORS 2008). This may occur because working class parents have less education and more repetitive task jobs for which it is helpful to be able to follow rules and conform. Wealthy parents tend to have better educations and often work in managerial positions or careers that require creative problem solving. So they teach their children behaviors that are beneficial in these positions. This means children are effectively socialized and raised to take the types of jobs their parents already have, thus reproducing the class system. Likewise, children are socialized to abide by gender norms, perceptions of race, and class related behaviors.

In Sweden, for instance, stay-at-home father are an accepted part of the social landscape. A government policy provides subsidized time off work 480 days for families with newborns with the option of the paid leave being shared between mothers and fathers. As one stay at home day says, being home to take care of his baby son is a real fatherly thing to do. I think that’s very masculine (Associated press 2011).         

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Question no. 02 a) Analyze the school on community in a progressive society?

Answer:

Schools have numerous responsibilities, including teaching, the students’ observation, critical thinking, mathematical reasoning, communication and problem saving skills. Science and pre-engineering, properly taught, can help schools fulfill these responsibilities because students can apply the knowledge and skills learned in their academic subjects to solve practical problems in their science classes. In particular, developing students’ conceptual understanding and analytical abilities through doing authentic science-based guided-inquiry hand-on activities enhances students’ self-worth and confidence, and consequently improves their school-wide academic achievement. Inquiry-based teaching, however. Requires highly structured instructional strategies and, as Cozzens remarks, demands teacher who are knowledgeable about scientific content and pedagogy. Findings reported by Bransford et al. and Jensen about effective teaching and learning strategies highlight the importance of education is an important tool in the development of communities and nations at large. The provision and management of quality education lies not only at the heart of central government but remains a shared responsibility of all stakeholders and the building of good working relationship among these stakeholders with particular emphasis on improving the school-community relationship. This stems from the fact point that education is seen as a social enterprise requiring the support of all stakeholders so that its contribution can benefit the entire society.

The school, similar to other facilities such as the community market, community borehole, is situated in the community belonging to the entire community members. The community therefore has a role to play in shaping the policies and finances of the school just as the school in turn must function to meet the social needs of the community by turning out a literate population and transmitting culture of the community to the youth.

Improving the school-community relationship is key because both bodies are interdependent and failure on the part of either body to play its role can lead to a collapse of the education system with its consequent effect on the society as a whole. Again, though formal education is aid to have been introduced in Ghana by the Europeans who provided not only the curricular but the infrastructure inclusive, the schools were not cited initially enough to cover all the communities in Ghana. It is against this background that some communities desirous of having formal education took it upon themselves and established basic schools, willingly recruited teachers and contributed to support them with the resources needed for their work including remuneration. As the process continued these schools were later absorbed into the public school system. The management and financing of these schools then shifted from the communities to the central government; this created a situation that witnessed less community involvement in the management of schools, hence the beginning of poor school-community relationship.

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Question no.02 b) What strategies can a teacher apply to strengthen the relationship between school and community?

Answer:

As the old African proverb says, “It takes a village to raise a child.” One could imagine then that it would take a community to raise a school. We can’t rely on local, state, or federal governments to take ownership of the issues we face locally. We need to work as a community to nurture our schools for our particular community needs.

I believe the answer to real education/school transformation is strong, authentic community connections and actions. When families, community groups, business and schools band together to support learning, young people achieve more in school, stay in school longer, and enjoy the experience more.

Great examples of school/community partnerships are happening all over the world. We need more of them, and we need to ensure they are healthy and relevant to the need of 21st century learners.

Throughout my journey setting up the Reinventing School Challenge, I did a significant amount of research to ensure I had a thorough understanding of what existed already, what worked, and what was possible.

The more I searched the themes for successful school transformation emerged:

  • Community/business school partnerships
  • Parental collaboration
  • Curriculum connected to real world experiences
  • Student voice
  • Cross generation learning
  • Locals designing solutions to local problems

Whole Community Engagement is Key

To lift up and raise our schools to a place that suits all 21t century learners, help needs to come from many parts of the community. The leading roles should be alternated according to the need and focus of the particular aspect of the transformation project.

If we respect each other and acknowledge our unique contribution, we can move forward quickly in a positive environment where we can all be teachers and learners.

I’m approaching this post from an inclusive, design-focused view, and I put to your ideas that target and engage the four main players I believe can make all the difference in transforming our schools and curriculum today: Students, parents, seniors/ grandparents and local businesses.

Step 1: Expand Your Vision of Schools to Include Community

Ryan Bretag writes, “Educators shouldn’t be the only ones contributing. The community should be creating questions, puzzles, quotes, mind benders, trivia, philosophical and ethical challenges, thought provoking videos, “graffiti walls,”brainstorming spaces, and play areas.”

6412 aiou solved assignment 2 autumn 2019

Step 2: Reach out to All Stakeholders

One of the best ways to connect and create an authentic bond to go to the people who matter most, and meet them on their own turf.  A series of community walks are a great way to start. Get your teachers, some local businesses on board and go and knock on people’s doors, visit local businesses and senior homes and talk with them. Try the same approach with groups of students. This time let the students communicate what they hope and wish for their school and encourage them to ask for mentoring and support. Share your dreams for enhanced community-school partnerships, ask people what matters to them, ask them how they might help, and show them your passion. Deliver them an open invitation to reconnect, collaborate and share their experience, skills and time to make a difference.

Step 3: Create a Community Resource Map

A visual representation of your community and the various skills people have to offer is a super way to understand what commonly resources are available. If you build one, also point out the materials people can supply at cost for free, the time they can invest in projects, and how they can connect to curriculum, and classroom activities. Include the networks they can utilize to raise awareness of the needs of local children and families, and always promote and foster resource-sharing and collaboration. Libraries are important hubs and can provide meaningful connection points outside the school gates.

A community resource map can come in the form of a hand-drawn map, Google Map, Mind Map or even a spreadsheet with some visual outputs.

Step 4: Connect with Curriculum

Much of what we learn as children and adults happens outside the classroom through real world experiences and from our peers, mentors or on the job.

How might we connect today’s core curriculum with the real world? That is an important question that is in urgent need of answers. Kids today are asking too often for relevance in what they are learning. “Why am I learning this? I’ll never use this!” is a response far too often heard from the mouths of young people today.

Let’s find ways to work with local businesses and subject matter experts to connect core curriculum to the outside world and design engaging learning experiences in and out of the classroom.

Please consider using project-based learning. Try using a matching technique to match students with subject matter experts, businesses and community organizations. Here is a great book on the subject by Suzie Boss. Reinventing Project-Based Learning:  You’re Field Guide to Real-World Projects in the Digital Age.

Let’s not forget the largely untapped wealth of experience and knowledge that resides with retires grandparents and millions of socially isolated senior citizens in aged care facilities.

Step 5: A Design Challenge for the Community

Here is an example of a community challenge to reinvent the school experience. I created the Reinventing School Challenge earlier this year to encourage discussion, empower youth, teachers and communities to design and facilitate change locally.

Reinventing school can mean lots of things such as redesigning classrooms, creating a community garden, creating an open and shared learning space, designing a course, changing the way students participate in decision making, you name it!

Using Stanford’s K12 lab Design Thinking for Educators a methodology, or process leading product and service designers use everyday, participants collaborate to come up with ideas and learning experiences and then share them online for all to benefit from.

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Question no 03 a) Explain why communication skills are essential for effective teaching?

Answer:

It is not enough for you to be an expert in your chosen subject matter. If you want students to truly learn the material, you must go beyond mere lecturing and apply a broad range of communication techniques. Studies consistently show that classes with the proper communication climate affect performance positively. Students become more motivated and engaged. They interact with the teacher and fellow students in meaningful, impactful, and mutually satisfying ways. Discover the communication skills that influence student achievement when you view What is the Role of Communication in Teaching Excellence?

BENEFITS

The most effective teachers are credible teachers. The content and style of your communication is the most powerful predictor of how credible students consider you.

After viewing this informative 20-minute presentation, you will be able to:

  • Explain the importance of effective teacher communication behaviors for promoting student learning gains.
  • Enhance teaching clarity through the use of constructive, relevant examples.
  • Operationalize communication effectiveness in terms of specific instructional behaviors.
  • Communicate more effectively in the classroom.
  • Communicate more effectively in out-of-class interactions with students.
  • Create a climate that promotes effective student/student interactions.
  • Draw an example that illustrate these strategies in large lectures, smaller classes, and even online.

LEARNING GOALS

In an energetic and conversational presentation, the presenter provides usable, skill-based advice for enhancing student/student and teacher/student exchanges.

You’ll see how to establish a communicate climate that facilitates and encourages active learning. You’ll learn prosocial, positive, encouraging ways to address students and spur their confidence. You’ll identify both verbal and nonverbal communication cues to maximize the value of your interactions with students. The video explores communication methods that build trust with students and reinforce your credibility in their eyes. Every technique and insight is backed up with concrete examples and ready-to-use advice.

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Question no 03 b) How effective communication can result in improved management?

Answer:

Conflict can ignite from the smallest word or action and can spark destructive responses and behaviors. Unresolved or poorly navigated conflict can damage and even destroy relationships. However, conflict does not have to be destructive. Handled effectively, conflict can actually contribute to stronger, deeper relationships and can help to address ongoing problems and concerns. Effective communication skills serve a key role in successfully resolving conflict, both in the home and in the workplace.

Navigating an Argument

One of the primary communication skills for resolving conflict successfully is learning how to navigate an argument effectively. This includes keeping the focus on a single issue and avoiding personal attacks. Stewart Levine, in “Getting to Resolution: Turning Conflict into Collaboration,” stresses that reaching resolution involves “addressing your real concerns” and “getting to the core of the conflict.” Active listening skills, such as talking less and asking questions for clarity, also play a role in effectively resolving conflict. Practicing strong verbal and nonverbal communication further contributes toward the successful resolution of conflict, whether between individuals or within a group.

Effective Communication Skills

An effective communication skill for successfully resolving conflicts is to address only one issue at a time and avoid introducing other topics, even if they are related. Clearly specify what you are concerned about, even if it takes some time to isolate the primary issue at hand. Also, avoid attacking the other person or making accusations, which will only lead to distrust and defensiveness. To listen effectively, take care to make sure you understand what the other person is trying to say, restating that person’s thoughts and feelings as needed. Strong verbal and nonverbal communication involves making appropriate eye contact, not using threatening physical actions, and verbally expressing how the situation makes you feel, instead of attacking or accusing the other person.

Challenges

One of the primary challenges of effective communication is preventing conflict escalation. In “Strategic Communication in Business and the Professions,” Dan O’Hair, Gustav W. Friedrich and Lynda Dee Dixon explain that conflict escalation “is particularly troublesome because, once it starts, it can perpetuate itself.” Conflict escalation can result in broken communication, false assumptions and negative commitments, all of which can further complicate the initial conflict. In the situations, O’Hair, Friedrich and Dixon ay the help of “a third party or a mediator” may be needed to help those involved “move back to positions of normalcy and objectivity.”

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Question no 04 a) Describe the relationship between technological change and society?

Answer:

Science and technology are essential ingredients of modern life. They transcend local boundaries and touches lives of everyone. Evolution of mankind can be seen in terms of technological evolution as well. Invention of fire and wheel changed the face of mankind.

Various historical epochs-Hunter-Gathers, agrarian society and industrialist society are distinguished from each other in term of technological advancement.

The technological factors represent the conditions created by men that have a profound influence on his life. Technology is product of civilization. According to Karl Marx even the formation of social relations and mental conceptions and attitudes are dependent upon technology.

Veblen has regarded technology as the sole explanation of social change W.F. Ogburn says technology changes society by changing our environments to which we in turn adapt. This change often modifies customs and social institutions.

Technology and Industrialization:

Technology has contributed to the growth of industries or to the process of industrialization. Industrialization is a term covering is general terms the growth in a society hitherto mainly agrarian of modern industry with all its circumstances and problems, economic and social.

It describes in general term the growth of a society in which a major role is played by manufacturing industry. The industrial revolution of 18th century led to the unprecedented growth of industries. Industrialization is associated with the factory system of production. The family has lost its economic importance. The factories have brought down the prices if commodities, improved their quality and maximized their output. The whole process of production is mechanized. Consequently the traditional skills have declined and good number of artisans has lost their work. Huge factories could provide employment opportunities to thousands of people. Hence men have become workers in a very large number. The process of industrialization has affected the nature, character and the growth of economy. It has contributed to the growth of cities or to the process of urbanization.

Technology and Urbanization:

In many countries the growth of industries has contributed the growth of cities. Urbanization denotes a diffusion of the influence of urban centers to a rural hinterland. Urbanization can be described as a process of becoming urban moving to cities changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities and corresponding change of behavior patterns. Hence only when a large proportion of inhabitants in an area come to cities urbanization is said to occur. Urbanization has become a world phenomenon today. An unprecedented growth has taken place not only in the number of great cities but also in their size. As a result of industrialization people have started moving towards the industrial areas in search of employment. Due to this the industrial areas developed into town and cities.

Technology and Modernization:

Modernization is a process that indicates the adoption of the modern ways of life and values. It refers to an attempt on the part of the people particularly those who are custom-bound to adapt themselves to the present-time, conditions, needs, styles and ways in general. It indicates a change in people’s food habits, speaking styles, tastes, choices, preferences, ideas, recreational activities and so on. People in the process of getting modernized give more importance to science and technology. The scientific and technological inventions have modernized societies in various countries. They have brought about remarkable changes in the whole system of social relationship and installed new ideologies in the place of traditional ones.

Development of the Means of Transport and Communication:

Development of transport and communication has led to the national and international trade on a large scale. The road transport, the train service, the ships and the airplanes have eased the movement of men and material goods. Post and telegraph, radio and television, newspapers and magazines, telephone and wireless and the like have developed a great deal. The space research and the launching of the satellites for communication purpose have further added to these developments. They have helped the people belonging to different corners of the nation or the world to have regular contacts.

Transformation in the Economy and the Evolution of the New Social Classes:

The introduction of the factory system of production has turned the agricultural economy into industrial economy. The industrial or the capitalist economy has divided the social organization into two predominant classes

  • The capitalist class
  • The working class

These two classes are always at conflict due to mutually opposite interest. In the course of time an intermediary class called the middle class has evolved.

Technology and Unemployment:

The problem of unemployment is a concomitant feature of the raid technological advancement. Machines not only provide employment opportunities for men but they also take away jobs of men through labor saving devices. This results in technological unemployment.

Technology and War:

The dangerous effect of technology is evident through the modern mode of welfare. The weaponry has brought fears and anxieties to the mankind. They can easily destroy the entire human race reveal how technology could be misused. Thus greater the technological advancement the more risk for the mankind.

Changes in Social Institutions:

Technology has profoundly altered our modes of life.Technology has not spared the social institutions of its effects. The institutions of family, religion, morality, marriage, state, property has been altered. Modern technology in taking away industry from the household has radically changed the family organizations. Many functions of the family have been taken away by other agencies. Marriage is losing its sanctity. It is treated as a civil contract than a sacred bond. Marriages are becoming more are unstable. Technology has elevated the status of women but it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Religion is losing hold in their outlook.Inventions and discoveries in science have shaken the foundations of religion. Modern technology has made the states to perform such functions as the protection of the aged, the weaker section and the minorities making provision for education, health care etc. the most striking change in modern times is the change in economic organization. Industry has been taken away from the household and new type of economic organization has been set up such as factories, stores, banks, corporations etc.      

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Question no 04 b) Analyze the response of Pakistani society to technological change?

Answer:

Technology and human life cannot be separated; society has a cyclical co-dependence on technology. We use technology; depend on technology in our daily life and our needs and demands for technology keep on rising. Humans use technology to travel, to communicate, to learn, to do business and to live in comfort. However, technology has also caused us concerns. Its poor application has resulted in the pollution of the environment and it has also caused a serious threat to our lives and society. This calls for the proper use of technology. The biggest challenge facing people is to determine the type of future we need to have and then create relevant technologies which will simplify thy way we do things.

It is important to explore how each new advanced technology has impacted our lives and how it will impact the future. Technology impacts the environment, people and the society as a whole. The way we use technology determines if its impacts are positive to the society or negative. For example, (POSITIVE IMPACT) we can use corn to make ethanol and this ethanol can be used as a fuel. Fuel can be used to run machines and cars which will increase the output of manufacturing industries at a lower cost. (NEGATIVE IMPACT) However, if we decide to shift large quantities of corn to fuel production from food production, humans will be left with no food and this will cause world hunger which even is a worse situations.

Humans need to use energy to process products in factories, to run cars, to light homes and also run technological machines like computers, but the only way we can do this without affecting the environment and society is by shifting from exhaustible energy sources to renewable and inexhaustible sources like Solar/Wind energy. I have listed both negative and positive impacts of technology on our society.

Positive Impacts of Technology on Society

  • Technology Has Mechanized Agriculture

Technology has mechanized agriculture: Modern agricultural technology allows a small number of people to grow vast quantities of food in a short period of time with less input which results into high yields and RIO “return on investment.” Through government subsidies, small and medium-sized farmer have managed to acquire lowing, sowing, watering and harvesting machines. The Use of Technology in Agriculture has also resulted in the manufacturing of genetic crops which can grow fast and they can be resistant to many pests and diseases. Also, farmers have access to artificial fertilizers which add value to the soil and boost the growth of their crops and enable them to produce high-quality yields. Farmers in dry areas have been in a position to grow healthy crops, they use advanced water pumps and sprinklers which derive water from rivers to the farms, the all process can be automated to save time. A good example is Egypt, this is a desert country which receives little rain, but small and big farmers have used automated sprinklers to irrigate their farms. In Egypt, they grow a lot of rice, yet this crop needs sufficient water to grow well. The water is pumped from River Nile to the rice fields on a daily basis.

  • Technology Has Improved Transportation

Technology has improved transportation: Transportation is one of the basic areas of technological activity. Both society and business have benefited from the new transpiration methods. Transportation uses vehicles, trains, airplanes, motorbikes, people, roads, energy, information, materials, finance and time. All these parts I have mentioned work together to move and relocate people and goods.  Technology has helped in advancing all the four types of transportation and these includes;

  1. Road transport used by automobiles
  2. Air transport which is used by airplanes
  3. Water transportation which is used by ships and speed boats
  4. Space transportation used to go to the moon

The most used of all these is road transportation, this one facilitates the movement of goods and people. Technologies like automobiles, buses and truck have improved the way humans move and how they transport and how they transport their goods from place to another. Also, developing countries are getting funds from wealthy countries to improve their road transport which has resulted in the development of rural remote areas.

                                                

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Question no 05 a) Explicate the roles and responsibilities of school, parents and local bodies in   community development?

Answer:

Respondents were asked to report what their school represents to their community. Because of the eloquence of the responses, a series of quotes from the focus groups are presented below to illustrate the importance of the schools to the participants. These strong feelings were common across all of the schools.

The school “represents the future.” Because of the school, “the way students used to dream in their past is totally different nowadays.” The school “transforms our children.” “The school is the strength of the society.”  “The school is a development agent for the community.” The school “shines the community.” The school “makes our children dream differently.” The school is “a daily bread that feeds our kids brain and a pride of their future.” “if there is no school, there is no future for our kids, either.”  The school is “educating people who solve the problems of the country and the community.”  The school is “educating people who solve the problems of the country and the community.” The school “means hope for us and our children.”  The school is “like a treasure that was hidden somewhere and this community is the one who found it.”

Summits schools were particularly credited with improving student attitudes and behaviors in addition to performing the academic functions of increasing knowledge and career preparation. They were referred to as “bank accounts” that are helping communities to prepare for their futures through investments in children. Students at the schools were thought to be more likely to avoid jail, pregnancy, and delinquency and to get good jobs that would benefit the overall community. Even if the students left to finish school elsewhere, it was thought they would be likely to return and work in the area.

The schools also benefit the communities by employing teachers who would otherwise be without jobs and income. This is indicative of the sense that the schools are key players in a virtuous cycle for communities. By benefiting students, families, teachers, and others stakeholders, those individuals develop the skills and stability to help others, thereby perpetuating an ongoing process of community development.

Coupled with these strong feelings about the importance of the schools, participants expressed a deep sense of ownership of the schools. This reinforces the centrality of the school to the communities, and is also a credit to the manner in which the schools were developed and the methods used to generate community engagement. Because of the sense that the schools belong to the communities, the teachers, parents, and other focus group participants all expressed willingness to volunteer to help the schools in any way that they could. In addition, they all desired the formation of school committees in order to facilitate participation in decision making, maintain awareness of the schools’ needs, and identify new opportunities to provide assistance. Parents’ and teachers’ reports of their roles in making decisions for the schools did vary across the schools, indicating that some principals welcomed advice and additional perspectives more than others.

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Question no. 05 b) Do you think teachers’ personality can be a source of motivation for students? Give argument?

Answer:

Personality traits are a combination of characteristics that are innate to people as individuals as well as characteristics that develop from specific life experiences. The personality traits that make up a person go a long way in determining how successful he is.

There are certain personality traits that help teachers and students succeed. Success may mean different things for different people. Teachers and students who hold the majority of the following characteristics are almost always successful regardless of how success is defined.

6412 aiou solved assignment 2 autumn 2019

Adaptability:

This is the ability to handle a sudden change without making it a distraction.

  • Students who have these traits can handle sudden adversity without letting academics suffer.
  • Teachers who have this trait are quickly able to make adjustment that minimize distractions when things do not go according to plan.

Conscientiousness:

Conscientiousness involves the capacity to complete a task meticulously with efficiency and of the highest quality.

  • Conscientious students can produce high-quality work consistently.
  • Conscientious teachers are extremely organized and efficient, and they provide their students with quality lessons or activities daily.

Creativeness:

This is the ability to use original thinking to solve a problem:

  • Students who have this trait can think critically and are adapt problem solvers.
  • Teachers who have this trait are able to use their creativeness to build a classroom that is inviting to students, create lessons that are engaging, and incorporate strategies to individualize lessons for every student.

Determination:

A person with determination can fight through adversity without giving up accomplishing a goal.

  • Students who have this trait are goal oriented, and they do not allow anything to get in the way of accomplishing those goals.
  • Teachers with determination figure out a way to get their job done. They do not make excuses. They find ways to reach even the most difficult students through trial and error without giving up.

Empathy:

Empathy allows a person to relate to another individual even though she may be not share similar life experiences or problems.

  • Students who have this trait can relate to their classmates. They are nonjudgmental. Instead, they are supportive and understanding.
  • Teachers who have this trait can look beyond the walls of their classroom to assess and meet their students’ needs. They recognize that some students live a difficult life outside of school and try to figure out solutions for helping them.

Forgiveness:

Forgiveness is the capacity to move beyond a situation in which you were wronged without feeling resentment or holding a grudge.

  • Students who are forgiving can let things go that could potentially serve as a distraction when they have been wronged by someone else.
  • Teachers with this trait can work closely with administrators, parents, students, or other teachers who may have created an issue or controversy that was potentially detrimental to the teacher.

Genuineness:

People who are genuine demonstrate sincerity through actions and words without hypocrisy.

  • Students who show genuineness are well-liked and trusted. They have many friends and are often looked upon a leader in their classroom.
  • Teachers with this trait are viewed as highly professional. Students and parents buy into they are selling, and they are often highly regarded by their peers.

Graciousness:

Graciousness is the ability to be kind, courteous, and thankful when dealing with any situation.

  • Students who are gracious are popular among their peers and well-liked by their teachers. People are drawn to their personality. They often go out of their way to help others any time an opportunity arises.
  • Teachers who have this trait are well respected. They are invested in their school beyond the four walls of their classroom. They volunteer for assignments, help other teachers when needed, and even find ways to assist needy families in the community.

Gregariousness:

The ability to socialize with and relate to other people is known as gregariousness.

  • Students who have this trait work well with other people. They are capable of making a connection with just about anyone. They love people and are often the center of the social universe.
  • Teachers who have this trait can build strong, trusting relationships with their students and families. They take the time to make real connections that often extend beyond the walls of the school. They can figure out a way to relate to and carry on a conversation with just about any personality type.

6412 aiou solved assignment 2 autumn 2019

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