MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE (5004) END TERM ASSESSMENT 2019

AIOU (5004) END TERM ASSESSMENT 2019 by SRASSIGNMENTS.COM

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Question No # 1

The Problem
Launching your brand or services can be a daunting task in today’s business environment.
Competition is fierce in almost every trade. To carve out your own niche in a highly competitive
market, you need to align your business plan with your marketing plan from the get-go.
Customers today are influenced by several elements beginning right from the identification of
the brand’s logo to how and where they encountered the promotional messages. In addition to
running your small or medium enterprise, marketing your products and services has now become
a full-fledged activity that is crucial to the promotion of a business. The promotional messages
have to be crafted especially keeping this current competitive environment in mind and a sound
knowledge of the potential customers’ preferences. One must know one’s target market inside
out to influence it the way one desires.
Before starting a business, you must surely have researched your target customer’s profile, needs
and requirements. Your product and services may be the best on offer in business, but without
sound marketing plans executed professionally, you are unable to inform and convince the
customers of your superiority over other brands. Marketing the business involves convincing
these customers to use your particular products because of their suitability over the competitors.
As a marketing firm with professional experience spanning so many years, we can tell you that it
takes a high level of expertise and a special nose for market trends to win over the highly
informed customers of today.
What You Need
Your needs for marketing are basically as follows:
1) Detailed identification of the target market and the best way to approach different segments.
For example, a product or service aimed at college students shall be best served by a marketing
campaign targeting seminars and webinars at educational institutes, cell phone messages,
educational websites, book fairs, promotional events at libraries and colleges etc.
2) Formulation of custom made messages for the identified methods of delivery. The messages
have to be tailored to catch the eye of the customers and must be positioned suitably to reach the
potential clients. The messages in both a comprehensive or basic marketing campaign typically
include product packaging, slogans, sales presentations, promotional text for flyers, brochures
and point of sale material, website content, copy for print, electronic media and web
advertisements, press releases and articles.
3) The production and execution of different forms of marketing messages involves extensive
working with text, ideas, materials and vendors, making it a time consuming and focused activity
on its own. Producing paper or plastic print media messages in the form of advertisements,

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
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brochures, flyers, billboards, product packaging, electronic media advertisements, web
development, search engine optimization, are just a few examples of production and execution of
the elements of a marketing plan.
The Opportunity
While this marketing scenario poses a big challenge for any small or medium enterprise (SME),
it also provides the opportunity for an entrepreneur to make use of specialized marketing services
offered by experienced firms.
Instead of being daunted by this aspect of the business, you can safely hand over your marketing
campaigns to professionals who guarantee customer satisfaction. This leaves your time and
resources free to focus on your prime activity. It also means you gain access to the services of
experienced professionals which may otherwise be unaffordable for a typical small business.
The Solution
Sensing the need for dedicated handling of this highly specialized aspect of modern businesses,
professional marketing firms offer their expertise to SMEs, effectively becoming partners by
taking care of their marketing needs. By employing the services of these firms, you can safely
skirt the need for setting up a specialized department with its extensive requirements, or you can
facilitate your marketing team with highly experienced and professional support at key moments
in your marketing plan.
Your business may have a dedicated marketing department handling the bulk of your needs. By
hiring a marketing firm, you provide them with reliable support and a cost effective solution for
handling your secondary needs like event promotion and production and delivery of specific
services for different products or occasions.
Proposal
Whether your small business is launching a new product or service, reviving a brand, reaching
out to your customers or simply trying to expand your customer base, we have a number of
highly satisfied clients around the globe belonging to diverse sectors like technology, food items,
financial services, luxury furniture, clothing, construction and general business services.
Our clients’ continued and long standing associations with our company are testimonies to our
efficiency, skills and reliability.
By partnering with our firm in taking care of your marketing needs, we ensure a significant
expansion of your returns and growth in business. Our extensive knowledge of the marketplace
and experience of the trends over the years enables us to produce comprehensive reports on your
product/service’s current market position and expected projection as we provide
recommendations for future.
Our overall goals are to:
 promote your product’s visibility in the marketplace,
 position your product to enhance its prestige and desirability, ensure long term and sustainable
success of the brand by constantly reviewing the results and revising specific strategies.
We believe in extensive and continued consultation with the clients before producing a campaign
or promotional message. Our marketing campaigns are essentially aligned with the client’s

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
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business plans, their goals and strategies since we aim to serve as a veritable arm of the client’s
business.
By keeping the client consistently informed of their brand’s market performance as well as
providing timely information about changing market trends, we fulfill the challenge of becoming
partners in their growth.
[COMPANY.Company] is a comprehensive, integrated marketing firm and consultancy, based
in [COMPANY.Company], covering the [LOCATION] area. Our top management consists of
highly experienced and qualified marketing professionals having years of specialized marketing
experience in different sectors.
Founded in the year [YEAR FOUNDED], our company has provided marketing services to a
growing list of highly satisfied clients, a majority of whom are market leaders in their sectors.
Our success as a marketing partner was recognized in [IDENTIFY SPECIAL ACHEIVEMENT
OR RECOGNITION].
We take special pride in our skills of providing viable and successful marketing strategies and
analysis to clients. In addition, our handling of promotional activities at special events and
exhibitions are well known for efficiency and efficacy.

Question No # 2

Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) are an important part of our modern society. Although it may
seem counter‐intuitive, in the United States these organizations contribute significantly to the
national economy. Since the early part of the 21st century, jobs in the nonprofit sector have
grown at a faster rate than those in the for‐profit sector (Bilzor, 2007), currently making up
almost 11% of the total workforce. While the individual nonprofit employee tends to make less
than his or her for‐profit counterpart, the nonprofit sector overall paid out more in total wages in
2004 than the utility, wholesale trade, and construction sectors combined (Bilzor, 2007).
Furthermore, NPOs contribute billions of dollars to the economy every year in products and
services—products and services that our state, local, and federal governments are relieved from
supplying. In four counties in western Michigan alone, NPOs had an economic impact of
$3.4 billion in 2006 (Community Research Institute, 2007).
The number of NPOs in the United States has grown tremendously in the last three decades. This
has created more competition for the limited amount of funds available to NPOs from individual
donors, the government, corporations, and foundations (Clark & Mount, 2000; Gwin, 2000;
Katz, 2005; Peloza & Hassay, 2007). This in turn has resulted in greater interest from the
nonprofit sector in marketing and in the importance of the marketing profession overall (Clarke
& Mount, 2000; Katz, 2005). In general, NPOs did not use marketing techniques until the “late

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1960s and early 1970s,” but it is now a well accepted—if often misunderstood—practice
(Wenham et al., 2003).
While there is general agreement that NPOs have a greater need for marketing than they did 30
years ago, there is little agreement on how NPOs should approach marketing. The goal of
traditional marketing efforts at for‐profit firms is most often improving the company’s bottom
line. An example of a common definition of marketing states that it is “the management process
responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably” (Smith
& Saker, 1992, p. 6). For NPOs, this type of definition is problematic. A Michigan “nonprofit
corporation” is one that is incorporated for any lawful purpose “not involving pecuniary profit or
gain” for its directors, officers, shareholders or members (Michigan Compiled Laws
450.2108(3)1993). This creates a disjoint between traditional marketing and the need for NPOs
to do marketing. So, to assist local NPOs in western Michigan in improving their marketing and
planning efforts, we have begun the development of a model nonprofit marketing strategy. The
first steps in this process were to determine how NPOs viewed marketing and to identify real and
perceived challenges and obstacles to these current NPO marketing efforts.
For many NPOs, getting customers or clients in the door is not a problem. NPOs are generally
created to provide services that the government does not offer or which the private, for‐profit
sector cannot be trusted to provide (Andreasen & Kotler, 2007). However, although the
organizational employees are often passionate about their NPO’s cause, they often lack business
experience or long‐term objectives (Bissell, 2003). Citing Akchin (2001), Wenham et al. (2003)
suggest that NPOs lack a customer orientation in their marketing practices, and few embrace a
marketing approach to their marketing operations.
Much of the research into NPO consumers focuses on targeting customers of arts organizations
or use of direct marketing (Arnold & Tapp, 2003, Izquierdo & Samaniego, 2007, Hume &
Mort, 2008). For example, Hume and Mort (2008) investigated ways for nonprofit organizations
to measure the perceived value of performance arts and the impact of those perceptions on
customer satisfaction. Another study examined the impact of direct marketing on fundraising and
season ticket sales for an arts organization and found that such marketing methods had a greater
impact on the consumers than on the donors (Arnold & Tapp, 2003). However, most articles
referring to NPO customers were actually focused on donors rather than clients (Arnold &
Tapp, 2003, Kristoffersen & Singh, 2004).
Furthermore, little has been written about what encourages or modifies volunteer behavior in the
nonprofit sector. While volunteers are essential to the survival of many NPOs (Govekar &
Govekar, 2002), most of these organizations do not understand volunteer recruitment and
management as a marketing function. Therefore, nonprofit organizations often run into difficulty
recruiting and keeping good volunteers.
One recent study discussed the need to develop a practice of relationship marketing in
developing committed volunteers (Bussell & Forbes, 2006). These authors found that it is not
simply a matter of finding individuals who are passionate about the NPO’s cause. Nonprofit
organizations must also provide volunteers with some benefit (e.g., self‐esteem, material goods)

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in return for their time and effort (Briggs, Landry, & Wood, 2007). When the benefits of
volunteering are ignored, individual passions can diminish and volunteers fade away. Andreasen
and Kotler (2007) found that the day‐to‐day management of volunteers is one of the more
frustrating tasks for nonprofit managers. One manager developed what he called the rule of
thirds: one third of the volunteers could always be counted on, one third volunteered for the sake
of volunteering, and the middle third worked well if targeted well (Andreasen & Kotler, 2007).
NPOs should consider volunteers as an additional target market for their marketing campaign.
They should determine not only what drives an individual to volunteer in general, but also what
motivates a particular individual to volunteer for a particular NPO doing a particular job, and
what keeps them coming back (McCurley, 1994).
This is especially true of volunteer board members. Unlike other volunteers, board members are
asked to make long‐term, legal commitments to the NPO. These board volunteers are also
generally passionate about the NPO’s cause, but they can be reluctant to make tough decisions
when needed (Katz, 2005). One study found that only 17% of NPO executives thought that their
board of directors was effective (Jansen & Kilpatrick, 2005).
One issue that all NPOs struggle with is determining what motivates individuals to donate to a
particular charity. Several authors suggest that, just like for‐profit firms, NPOs need to segment
their markets and only target those individuals who are most likely to donate to their cause.
In one study, Bennett (2003) found clear evidence that both personal values and demographic
factors such as age, income, and education influence individual choices about which charities to
support. Surprisingly, he did not find personal experience to be a universal determinate in
donation behavior. For example, individuals who owned pets were more likely to donate to
animal rescue organizations, but individuals who have had or who currently have family
members or friends with cancer were not necessarily more likely to donate to cancer research
organizations. In a subsequent study, Bennett (2006) looked at factors that contributed to
repeated donations to a particular NPO. He found that the length of the relationship that the
donor had with the charity, the donor’s overall involvement in charitable giving (e.g. number of
charities donated to), and the so‐called “helper’s high” all contributed to continued and repeated
donations to an individual NPO.
Sargeant, West, and Ford (2003) examined the impact of donor perceptions about particular
charities on donor behavior. These authors found that perceived effectiveness and efficiency of a
NPO influences whether a person donates. They also discovered that family ties to an
organization or its cause impacted donor behavior, but that those individuals needed a different
message for encouragement to donate.
Micro Environment Factors
 Suppliers: Suppliers can control the success of the business when they hold power. The
supplier holds the power when they are the only or the largest supplier of their goods; the
buyer is not vital to the supplier’s business; the supplier’s product is a core part of the
buyer’s finished product and/or business.

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
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 Resellers: If the product the organisation produces is taken to market by 3rd party
resellers or market intermediaries such as retailers, wholesalers, etc. then the marketing
success is impacted by those 3rd party resellers. For example, if a retail seller is a
reputable name then this reputation can be leveraged in the marketing of the product.
 Customers: Who the customers are (B2B or B2C, local or international, etc.) and their
reasons for buying the product will play a large role in how you approach the marketing
of your products and services to them.
 The competition: Those who sell the same or similar products and services as your
organisation is your market competition, and the way they sell needs to be taken into
account. How do their prices and product differentiation impact you? How can you
leverage this to reap better results and get ahead of them?
 The general public: Your organisation has a duty to satisfy the public. Any actions of
your company must be considered from the angle of the general public and how they are
affected. The public has the power to help you reach your goals; just as they can also
prevent you from achieving them.
Macro Environment Factors
 Demographic forces: Different market segments are typically impacted by common
demographic forces, including country/region; age; ethnicity; education level; household
lifestyle; cultural characteristics and movements.
 Economic factors: The economic environment can impact both the organisation’s
production and the consumer’s decision-making process.
 Natural/physical forces: The Earth’s renewal of its natural resources such as forests,
agricultural products, marine products, etc must be taken into account. There are also
natural non-renewable resources such as oil, coal, minerals, etc that may also impact the
organisation’s production.
 Technological factors: The skills and knowledge applied to the production, and the
technology and materials needed for the production of products and services can also
impact the smooth running of the business and must be considered.
 Political and legal forces: Sound marketing decisions should always take into account
political and/or legal developments relating to the organisation and its markets.
 Social and cultural forces: The impact the products and services your organisations
brings to market have on society must be considered. Any elements of the production
process or any products/services that are harmful to society should be eliminated to show
your organisation is taking social responsibility. A recent example of this is the
environment and how many sectors are being forced to review their products and services
in order to become more environmentally friendly.

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
(5004) END TERM Assesments

AIOU (5004) END TERM ASSESSMENT 2019 by SRASSIGNMENTS.COM

Question No # 3

The price is one of the first things that a consumer notices about a product and is one of the
deciding factors when it comes to their decision to buy it or not.
Needless to say, the competition in the market has gotten much more aggressive and real-time,
especially in the age of comparison shopping. This means that businesses need to keep an eye on
their competitor’s pricing strategy while setting prices in order to get the much needed
competitive edge in the market. Comparing prices online is easy and customers are well
aware of the monetary value of a product. These factors are also important considerations while
setting competitive prices.
Among the various models of pricing, competitive pricing is one that has caught the fancy of
many businesses. Having a monopoly is one thing—you can set the price the way you want (of
course there are few government norms) but setting pricing strategies based on competitors’
behavior isn’t an easy task.
When a product is priced in accordance with what the competition is charging, it’s known as
competitive pricing. It is one of the four major pricing strategies adopted by most companies.
The other three include, cost-plus strategy, where a prefixed profit margin is added over the total
cost of the product, demand pricing, under which the price is set by establishing the optimal
relationship between volume and price, and markup pricing, where a percentage is added (as
profit) over the wholesale price of the product.
When it comes to competition based pricing strategy, the purchasing behaviour of customers is
an important criteria. Some of the factors that companies take into account are costs,
competition, and price sensitivity. In order to ensure profitable sustenance of the business,
managers have to set the price such that it covers the production cost, company overheads costs,
and also offers suitable profits.
In order to establish the right competitive price for your product, you need to take into account
the product life cycle and the stage your product is in. Competition is one factor that you can
ignore if your product is in the developmental stage. However, if it’s a part of the market, and
fighting with a relatively high number of substitutes and competitors, then considering the
actions of your competitors might be one factor driving your profit. You have three choices—
price your product lower, higher, or same as your competitor. The most common tactic is to set
the price according to the competitors, also known as competitive pricing strategy.

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As already mentioned, there are three things that you can do in order to set the right price
for your products:

  1. If you’re planning to set the price above the price of your competitor, then you’d need to bring
    in new features and improvements in your product that would justify the increased price.
  2. Pricing below your competitor’s price depends on your resources. If you can increase the
    volume without affecting the production cost to a great extent, then this might be a good strategy
    for you. However, there’s the risk of diminishing profit margin and you might not be able to
    recover your sunk cost and even face bankruptcy. So, it’s really important that you evaluate each
    step of your competitor while establishing the price for your product.
  3. When you set a price equivalent to your competitor, then the differentiating factors cease to
    exist. The focus shifts to the product itself, and if you can offer more (and better) features at the
    same time, it’s a win-win for you, and your competitors will fall behind.
    So, competitive pricing is a game to play. Competitive pricing intelligence demands that you
    have in-depth knowledge of your market and target audience.
    A lot of effort goes into the process of establishing the price based on competition. According to
    a recent survey, minor variations in prices can lower or raise profit margins by more than 20-
    25%. Competitive price analysis is essential to competitive pricing strategies. Let’s look at some
    competitive pricing examples, to get a better understanding of this process.
    Competitive Pricing Examples
    The concept of competitive pricing is best understood when there are only two competing
    parties. Suppose, two companies manufacture detergent for washing clothes. Both will charge
    the same price and if one company wants to compete with the other, will advertise saying why
    it’s product is better.
    Even big corporate giants sometimes resort to competitive pricing strategy when they want to
    enter a new market. They have to set the price almost equivalent to their competitor, even if the
    production cost is high. In case the production cost is higher, they’d have to play around and
    adjust prices of packaging, advertising, and distribution.
    Some companies have to use competitor based pricing, as often price is the only factor customers
    consider while buying a product and the switching cost for buying a product from two different
    stores is very low. In most cases, competitor intelligence tools are the central decision-making
    resources for determining competitive prices. There are numerous other variables that need to be
    considered in this case.
    Product life cycle is the progression of an item through the four stages of its time on the market.
    The four life cycle stages are: Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Every product has a
    life cycle and time spent at each stage differs from product to product.
    Life Cycle through the Stages
    At the Introduction stage the product comes to the market and the business looks to get a
    foothold on the sales ladder by:
     Establishing branding and assuring the market of the quality of the new product.

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
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 An initial low pricing policy to get into the market, though with little competition, price may
be high initially to recoup development costs.
 Selection of a distribution model to get the product onto the market.
 Promotion of the product through aiming it at specific target groups such as online forums.
After successful Introduction comes the Growth stage. This will look to take developments at the
first stage up to another level by:
 Maintaining the quality of the product and adding any extra services or support that becomes
obvious during introduction.
 Keeping the price at a good level to maintain sales growth.
 Increasing distribution and sourcing new, faster ways of getting the product onto the shelves.
 Marketing campaigns aimed at a broader audience and at growing market share for the
product.
With growth established, Maturity is the next stage of the life cycle. The business deals with this
by:
 Adding features that will make the product differ from the inevitable competitors that enter the
market.
 Cutting price to counter competition.
 Revising distribution channels and using incentives to encourage stores to stock the original
product in preference to newcomers.
 New promotions that aim to show differences between products.
When the Decline happens the business will consider:
 Keeping the product on the market but adding or removing features or finding new uses for it.
 Reducing costs and production and keeping it just for a niche segment of the market.
 Discontinuing the product or selling the production rights to another company.
By keeping a strong hold on the four stages of a product life cycle, a business can maximise
returns and realize when the time is right to divest itself of the product. By not doing so may cost
the business money and lead to a limited life cycle for the product.

Question No # 4

Packaging Gateway takes a look at five cereal packaging trends to look out for.
1) Flexible packaging
Slowly infiltrating supermarket shelf over the past couple of years, the flexible packaging
continues to overtake traditional rigid packaging.
Resealable, flexible and stand-up bags are set to become a more popular cereal packaging trend,
meaning the humble cardboard box may be off our shelves sooner than we think. This is a way
for companies to bring convenience and innovation into the market and reduce overall
packaging.
Single-serve pouches will also come into play, similar to trends seen and predicted in the pet
food packaging market.
2) Sustainable materials
However, cardboard won’t be off our shelves altogether. As the material has compostable and
biodegradable properties, cereal companies are repurposing it into tubs and other shapes to
answer consumer demands for more sustainable packaging.
Currently, most cereals are currently packaged using plastics, such as polyethylene,
polypropylene, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and more. Now
companies are looking towards sustainable materials, such as paper and plant-based packaging,
totally eradicating the need for the plastic inner bags found inside traditional cardboard package
cereals.
However, some companies are also changing their current unsustainable plastic packaging to
recyclable plastic alternatives. This move will allow companies to keep the freshness of their
products to a high standard, as well as bring peace of mind to those concerned about plastic
waste.

Finally, labels will also become more sustainable with some even being printed using vegetable-
based inks.

3) Farewell to characters and mascots
For children, one of the most exciting aspects of eating cereal or even just selecting the box is the
bright, eye-catching mascots splattered across the packaging. From Tony the Tiger to Cap’n
Crunch to Coco the Monkey, children are drawn to these cereal mascots for their child-like
nature and memorable catchphrases.
However, the future of cereal packaging could see mascots being removed completely. Earlier
this year, UK shadow secretary of state for digital, culture, media and sport Tom Watson called
for a ban on characters used to advertise sugary food and drink, attributing them to being a factor
in child obesity
In a speech addressing the Advertising Association Watson said: “For children under 10, cereal
is their single biggest source of free sugar intake.
“When we have a third of children leaving primary school overweight or obese, when teenage
diabetes is rising by 70%, we’ve got to ask ourselves – is this still acceptable? I don’t think it is.

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
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“Advertising has contributed to making us a nation overweight, unhealthy and addicted to sugar,
and the industry has got to play a part in getting us out of this mess. And it’s in your self-interest
to do this, if the Ipsos Mori survey on trust is anything to go by.
“So when it comes to high-sugar products like Coco Pops, my argument to you today is: get that
monkey off our packs. I want you to find a way to help us get healthier. Get cartoon characters
off adverts for high-sugar foods. Help us kick our sugar habit.
4) Augmented reality technology
On the other hand, cereal characters and mascots are still celebrated. And with technology at the
forefront of every industry, it’s not a surprise that this is will also be a trend to gain more traction
within the cereal packaging industry.
Earlier this month, Kellogg’s Australia and US-based art supplies company Crayola partnered to
produce black and white cereal boxes that can be coloured-in using a browser-based augmented
reality tool.
5) Packaging-free
Not the favourite trend amongst packaging companies, packaging-free cereal is something that
has and is continuing to gain popularity for eco-conscious shoppers.
Last month, UK supermarket chain Waitrose & Partners launched its new packaging-free retail
concept ‘Waitrose Unpacked,’ which saw packaging being removed from hundreds of products
and the testing of refillable zones, where customers could refill products including cereal.
Multi-Unit Laundry Detergent Packaging
If you are offering a liquid, sizes typically range from 50 to 210 fluid ounces. The variety of
sizes is important, too. From seniors who need lighter-weight packaging for their smaller laundry
loads to large families who need the quantity-convenience and cost-effectiveness of buying in
bulk, we have great packaging options to meet the needs of all target consumer groups.
Liquid detergent bottles are typically made from HDPE. Since consumers expect a neat, drip-free
pour, it’s key to provide a good dispensing system.

You have several methods to accomplish a tidier use of the detergent. Some bottles have build-
in spouts and then an overcap. Others larger bottles use a spigot with a measuring cup. A third,

newer option is to use a dosing system that is similar to what is seen with mouthwash. With this
option, the consumer squeezes the bottle and the correct amount for a single dose is put in a
reservoir for easy pouring.
Single Unit Packets, Bars, and Pods
As a newer laundry detergent packaging option with plenty of room for customization, single
unit packets are quite unparalleled. Containers for single unit dose packets, bars, and pods can
take on many shapes and sizes.
Pods can be found in resealable pouches, tubs with flip-top lids, or custom bottles. This detergent
format offers the ultimate easy experience for consumers — no measuring, no dripping, no mess–
and can often contain detergent, fabric softener, and even other laundry aids in one combined
dose.

MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE
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As trends emerge favoring convenient packaging, pods should be an option that you consider for
market testing and possibly even as a regular option.

Orange juice for home consumption is sold mainly in shelf-stable or chilled form. The shelf-
stable form, stored at ambient temperature, dominates all global retail markets except in the US,

where chilled juice leads. Frozen concentrate for home dilution was popular in the US but has
declined to a minor product. It is rare elsewhere because of poor quality domestic water or the
inconvenience of dilution.
Ready-to-drink juice from concentrate and NFC sold as shelf-stable products are pasteurized and
either packaged aseptically or hot filled. The types of orange juice sold in chilled form – freshly
squeezed juice, NFC and ready-to-drink juice from concentrate – are not usually packaged
aseptically or hot filled.
Laminated carton packages are the predominant form of orange juice packaging in most
countries. Worldwide plastic bottles are the second most common type of container, while glass
bottles today play a minor role in orange juice packaging. Nevertheless, in some markets like
France and Germany certain consumer groups still favour glass bottles. Today, less and less juice
for consumption is sold in cans, although Japan is one exception. PET, usually with an added
oxygen barrier, is the most common material used for plastic bottles containing ambient orange
juice. In bottles for chilled juice a shift is under way from HDPE to PET.
Edible Oil Packaging
Flexible bag-in-box and pouch packaging provide eco-conscious solutions that keep
your edible oils safe and fresh from fill through end-use.
Extract the maximum amount of edible oil product while preserving freshness and
taste. Our innovative bag-in-box systems include a wide range of film, fitments, and
filling equipment for a total flexible packaging solution engineered to protect your
edible oil from fill through final dispensing. We provide:
 Extended freshness and superior product evacuation.
 Versatility to deliver your products anywhere you need.
 Solutions that minimize your environmental impact and leave less packaging waste
behind.
 Reduced food waste with longer secondary shelf life.
References:

  1. https://www.pandadoc.com/product-marketing-proposal-template/
  2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10495140802529532
  3. https://www.iedunote.com/marketing-environment
  4. https://www.intelligencenode.com/blog/competitive-pricing-strategy-see-
    products-priced/
  5. https://www.packaging-gateway.com/features/cereal-packaging-trends/

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